What is Training Needs Analysis (TNA)? Training Needs Analysis is to ascertain who is in need of training and what kind of training they need. This in-depth study is an analysis of knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees who are inefficient and problematic. This analysis also studies a particular task problem in detail. The result is a proposal of one or several groups of employees who need some training to improve their job performance.
In making the TNA, many approaches can be used. However, all approaches should be tailored to the situation. Unlike investigation work, implementing the TNA in an organization is actually trying to find weaknesses in the training process (Smit and Delahaye, 1983). The following suggestions may serve as a guide to managing TNA tasks:
Monitoring is an activity that must be done continuously, not just when you want to prepare for the TNA. This technique therefore requires a person to always have information on current issues at all levels within the organization. To enable a person to obtain a broad picture, he or she should know the key data in the organization. For example the long-term goals and objectives of the organization and to familiarize him or herself about the procedure of interaction between departments. Furthermore all units has to develop effective communication at various levels within the organization, so that attitudes and opinions of other workers are known. Although this information is subjective, but it could give some idea of what is going on that may not be obtained if discussion is only at the top level. Finally, we should always follow the development of policies, standards and trends. The more information we know about the company and its position in the market, the more effective would be the training program to be conducted.
This technique, is needed when the coordinator is asked by management to conduct training programs or when administrators anticipate the need for training. Using data collected during the monitoring level, administrators must investigate further about the issues and the problem faced to verify that training is one solution. Several techniques that can help the investigation are observation, interviews, questionnaires, diaries, work samples, records of service, performance evaluation and psychological testing.
The final step in making TNA is analyzing data that were collected. Analysis is a creative process that requires understanding of the data, starting with the relevant parts, making conclusion and preparing a report or document on the outcome. This report should contain specific details such as the type of training required, and how to implement them. Training needs analysis is critical to the success of the training program. So making an accurate and complete TNA will ensure the training programme runs smoothly and effectively.